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A. … training to do my job properly.
B. I’m sorry. It’s just not possible.
I need some
Can I have your

I … you later, OK
call
‘ll call

I … to the news on television at nine o’clock last night
had been listening
listened
have been listening
was listening

WIND ENERGY
Every day you can see the wind blowing and watch all of that wasted energy just floating away. A lot of energy is thought to be (1) … and all you need to use it are a few wind turbines Currently less than 1% of the Earth’s energy needs are (2) … by wind, with Denmark being the most wind-friendly producing 23% of its own energy needs from wind. The energy produced is totally clean and also one of the (3) … around and it is able to produce (4) … 18 times more energy than is consumed in its construction, (5) … nuclear which is estimated at around five. People are often worried about the look of wind farms but what they often forget is that the land can still (6) … for farming, with only 1% of the space being taken up by the wind turbines. One of the biggest (7) … about wind turbines, is their effect on bats and birds. In Norway, nine out of ten sea eagles were killed by turbines. Bats too are a serious problem. Even the manufacturers of wind turbines are (8). concerned by the numbers of bats being. killed, prompting ongoing research.
Read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (7).
benefits
advantages
concerns
prospects

WIND ENERGY
Every day you can see the wind blowing and watch all of that wasted energy just floating away. A lot of energy is thought to be (1) … and all you need to use it are a few wind turbines Currently less than 1% of the Earth’s energy needs are (2) … by wind, with Denmark being the most wind-friendly producing 23% of its own energy needs from wind. The energy produced is totally clean and also one of the (3) … around and it is able to produce (4) … 18 times more energy than is consumed in its construction, (5) … nuclear which is estimated at around five. People are often worried about the look of wind farms but what they often forget is that the land can still (6) … for farming, with only 1% of the space being taken up by the wind turbines. One of the biggest (7) … about wind turbines, is their effect on bats and birds. In Norway, nine out of ten sea eagles were killed by turbines. Bats too are a serious problem. Even the manufacturers of wind turbines are (8). concerned by the numbers of bats being. killed, prompting ongoing research.
Read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (4).
in average
on average
to average
by average

We are late. The film … by the time we get to the cinema.
will already have started
will already start
will be already started

WIND ENERGY
Every day you can see the wind blowing and watch all of that wasted energy just floating away. A lot of energy is thought to be (1) … and all you need to use it are a few wind turbines Currently less than 1% of the Earth’s energy needs are (2) … by wind, with Denmark being the most wind-friendly producing 23% of its own energy needs from wind. The energy produced is totally clean and also one of the (3) … around and it is able to produce (4) … 18 times more energy than is consumed in its construction, (5) … nuclear which is estimated at around five. People are often worried about the look of wind farms but what they often forget is that the land can still (6) … for farming, with only 1% of the space being taken up by the wind turbines. One of the biggest (7) … about wind turbines, is their effect on bats and birds. In Norway, nine out of ten sea eagles were killed by turbines. Bats too are a serious problem. Even the manufacturers of wind turbines are (8). concerned by the numbers of bats being. killed, prompting ongoing research.
Read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (1).
available
handy
ready
convenient

HUMAN RIGHTS DAY On 10 December 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which has become a (1) … standard for defending and promoting human rights. Every year on 10 December, Human Rights Day marks the adoption of the Universal Declaration which states that «Human beings are born with (2) … rights and fundamental freedoms». In 2006, Human Rightstailan Day focused on (3) … poverty as a matter of obligation, not of charity. Poverty is (4) … by human rights violations. The links between human rights and poverty should be obvious: people whose rights are (5) … are more likely to be poor. Generally they find it harder or impossible to participate in the labour market and have little or no access to (6) … services and resources. Meanwhile, the poor in many societies cannot enjoy their rights to education, health and housing simply (7) … they cannot afford them. And poverty affects all human rights: for example, low income can prevent people from accessing education, which in turn inhibits their participation in public life and their ability to influence the policies affecting them. Governments and those in a position of authority must (8) … responsibility for dealing with poverty. The realisation of human rights — including the fight against poverty — is a duty, not a mere aspiration.
Read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (1).
universal
typical
whole
complete

WIND ENERGY
Every day you can see the wind blowing and watch all of that wasted energy just floating away. A lot of energy is thought to be (1) … and all you need to use it are a few wind turbines Currently less than 1% of the Earth’s energy needs are (2) … by wind, with Denmark being the most wind-friendly producing 23% of its own energy needs from wind. The energy produced is totally clean and also one of the (3) … around and it is able to produce (4) … 18 times more energy than is consumed in its construction, (5) … nuclear which is estimated at around five. People are often worried about the look of wind farms but what they often forget is that the land can still (6) … for farming, with only 1% of the space being taken up by the wind turbines. One of the biggest (7) … about wind turbines, is their effect on bats and birds. In Norway, nine out of ten sea eagles were killed by turbines. Bats too are a serious problem. Even the manufacturers of wind turbines are (8). concerned by the numbers of bats being. killed, prompting ongoing research.
Read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (5).
added to
compared to
matched to
contrasted to

Read the texts and match them with the headings. There is one extra title.
«I don’t know how you stay at home all day… I would be bored out of my mind», was a comment I often heard when I stayed at home. Was I bored Never I mastered the housework so that I wasn’t a slave to it. Obviously, there was the cleaning to be done regularly but it was the sharing of the tidying up that made the difference. My family learnt to tidy up after themselves and if there was a bit of accumulated dust it would wait until the end of the week when a day was set aside for a thorough cleaning. I established a routine for the necessary chores that had to be done daily, but if they weren’t completed by lunchtime, they were left until the next day. That way I had time to pursue my own interests and to spend time with the children as well.
NEVER BORED
EXHAUSTING FOR ALL
MONEY OR TIME
THE PERFECT JOB
WIND ENERGY

Every day you can see the wind blowing and watch all of that wasted energy just floating away. A lot of energy is thought to be (1) … and all you need to use it are a few wind turbines Currently less than 1% of the Earth’s energy needs are (2) … by wind, with Denmark being the most wind-friendly producing 23% of its own energy needs from wind. The energy produced is totally clean and also one of the (3) … around and it is able to produce (4) … 18 times more energy than is consumed in its construction, (5) … nuclear which is estimated at around five. People are often worried about the look of wind farms but what they often forget is that the land can still (6) … for farming, with only 1% of the space being taken up by the wind turbines. One of the biggest (7) … about wind turbines, is their effect on bats and birds. In Norway, nine out of ten sea eagles were killed by turbines. Bats too are a serious problem. Even the manufacturers of wind turbines are (8). concerned by the numbers of bats being. killed, prompting ongoing research.
Read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (8).
sadly
wrongly
badly
deeply

The Irish Travellers are the largest minority in Ireland. There are about 25,000 Irish Travellers in Ireland and 1,300 in Northern Ireland. They are a little understood nomadic community, who have many difficulties to overcome if they are to survive as a culture and gain acceptance into Irish society. Among the challenges facing them are poverty and racism. The Irish Travellers are a distinct ethnic group which has existed for centuries. Often they are mistakenly considered part of the nomadic Romani, an ethnic group which originated in the region of India and is now widespread throughout Europe. But the Irish Travellers are indigenous to Ireland, so the two cultures are not related. While both are nomadic, the Irish Travellers are Roman Catholic and speak a language that is theirs alone. They have their own culture, customs, traditions, and language. They are noted for their musical and storytelling abilities. In times past, they travelled by horse-drawn wagon in caravans, making camp along the way. Tinsmithing, horse trading and peddling were the major sources of income in those days. Tinsmiths were so prevalent among Irish Travellers that the terms Tinker and Irish Traveller were used interchangeably. Today, Tinker is one of many names for Irish Travellers. Horses and wagons have given way to mobile homes pulled by motor vehicles. They continue their life on the road, but there are fewer places to stop and fewer places where they are welcome. Today, Irish Travellers mainly work in re¬cycling. Changing needs of society and progress have eliminated the jobs that could support a culture on wheels. Irish Travellers are poor, undereducated, and on the receiving end of discrimination. Their life expectancy is lower than average while their infant mortality rate is higher than average. As is the case with the Romani, the Irish Travellers are seen by many as a group of immoral, ignorant criminals and con artists. People distrust their nomadic culture and their language, Shelta. Many think it’s a secret language specifically developed as a tool to help the Irish Travellers trick innocent people. But this is not true. It is an old language, which has evolved with time and circumstances. Once heavily infused with Irish Gaelic, it is now infused with English.
They were called Tinkers, which is now … for them.
terms
a title
a name


Fill in the gaps in the text with the correct forms of the verbs.
I’m living in a small Hotel at the moment, but I …. to a flat next week. I’ve asked a friend of mine to share it with me.
moved
am moving
have moved
move

Fill in the gaps in the text with the correct forms of the verbs.
I’ve been working as a manager since I …. and I find It really interesting.
arrived
arrive
will arrive
arrives


We … 20 new buildings this year.
had built
have built
built


Water … at 100 degrees.
will boil
will have been boiling
boils

I … when my friend …
slept, was calling
slept, called
was sleeping, called

All in all, the internet is here to stay and whether it … our life is up to us.
improved or ruined
improves or ruins
Choose true sentence according to the text. Homemaking…
Every family needs a homemaker. Whether this is the mum or dad, or part-time from both is irrelevant. In our family, we chose the traditional role for me to stay at home, but some families choose the reverse, especially if the woman has the better-paid job. We have actually experienced both since I had to work full-time when my husband was made redundant and stayed at home for a time. The days when the person staying at home to look after the house and family was thought of as being «just a housewife» have long gone, especially now that there is a role reversal and it is sometimes the man who stays home. Nowadays there is a lot of pride in being the «homemaker». It is one of the most worthwhile careers and the rewards, although not financial, are great. The family benefits from quality time from one parent all the time.
has become a worthwhile career.
prevented the family from having social life.
helped someone to pursue his/her own interests.

It … outside; I do not like to walk in such weather.
is rain
rains
is raining

I … a very difficult day tomorrow. I need to prepare for the exam.
having
will have
have

At 10 o’clock in the morning on Wednesday Tom … a delegation in the office.
will be receiving
is receiving
will receive

Although the sun was shining, it was still cold, because it … hard for two hours.
was raining
had rained
had been raining


Choose true sentence according to the text. Homemaking…
So, after my first baby arrived, I felt for years that I had the perfect job. I was my own boss. I could work when I wanted and have a rest when I wanted. If I didn’t feel like cleaning or doing the shopping and wanted to have a day off, that was fine. Nobody else would have to be asked to cover for me, my work could wait until I was ready to do it. Oh yes, it was hard work taking care of our home and our children and the hours were long, but the work was varied and very rewarding. In fact, being a homemaker was the perfect job for me. I was absolutely happy being a housewife and mum. Watching my children thrive, witnessing their first steps, hearing their first words and all the other milestones were worth more than any amount of money.
made someone very happy.
was easier than combining full-time work and housework.
prevented the family from having social life.

I … for a whole hour
am waiting
was waiting
have been waiting

After they … they cleared the table.
have eaten
had eaten
eat
Fill in the gaps in the text with the correct forms of the verbs.
I’m learning Russian and l can already understand what people around me are talking about. «But I find it really difficult to speak Russian . I …. the course by the end of the year and hope I feel more confident with this language.
finished
finish
will finish
will have finished

Choose the right variant
We called our friends in London yesterday to tell them about the reunion that we ….
will plan
were planning
have planned
plan
Fill in the gaps in the text with the correct forms of the verbs.


I ….. in Novgorod for three months and I’m enjoying life here very much.
was
have been
had been
am

At the same time, remember that money is also important for you need it to survive. So, if a job is all … but no pay, things can get difficult.
satisfaction
satisfy

But if you do not enjoy what you do then you are .. … wasting a large part of your life.
foolishly
fool

A career development professional will use various tools to help you evaluate your interests, personality, … and values.
skills
skillful

The internet has changed people's life dramatically. It has allowed people from all over the world … with each other and express their ideas and opinions.
to communicate
Communication

Then, the best way to deal with the dilemma is to think about .. ... a career counselor.
consult
consulting

He or she will then show you how all these things, combined, play a role in choosing a career. You can also learn about a career by interviewing people who are already in that profession. Once you have all the information you need, list out all the pros and cons of that particular job. Look at the various ... .
alternatives
alter

This happens because computers … to compensate for feelings of loneliness, marital and work problems, poor social life, and financial problems.
are used
use

Moreover, career choices cannot be made based on just a few criteria alone. Your job may carry great monetary …. and perks.
Beneficial
Benefits

How long ... you ...? Since I was 17.
have driven
did drive
have been driving

I hope Kate is coming soon. I ... for two hours.
had been waiting
have been waiting
am waiting

At last Kate came. I ... for two hours.
have been waiting
am waiting
had been waiting

Long ago they ... most houses out of wood.
build
built
have built

The internet offers other alternatives, such as working from home and online shopping. Today you … go out to buy goods or earn money.
don’t have to
haven’t to

The biggest concern about people using the internet is … addicted to it.
getting
got

WIND ENERGY Every day you can see the wind blowing and watch all of that wasted energy just floating away. A lot of energy is thought to be (1) ... and all you need to use it are a few wind turbines! Currently less than 1% of the Earth's energy needs are (2) ... by wind, with Denmark being the most wind-friendly producing 23% of its own energy needs from wind. The energy produced is totally clean and also one of the (3) ... around and it is able to produce (4) ... 18 times more energy than is consumed in its construction, (5) ... nuclear which is estimated at around five. People are often worried about the look of wind farms but what they often forget is that the land can still (6) ... for farming, with only 1% of the space being taken up by the wind turbines. One of the biggest (7) ... about wind turbines, is their effect on bats and birds. In Norway, nine out of ten sea eagles were killed by turbines. Bats too are a serious problem. Even the manufacturers of wind turbines are (8). concerned by the numbers of bats being. killed, prompting ongoing research. Read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (2).
supplied
distributed
hardest

Choose true sentence according to the text. Homemaking… So, after my first baby arrived, I felt for years that I had the perfect job. I was my own boss. I could work when I wanted and have a rest when I wanted. If I didn't feel like cleaning or doing the shopping and wanted to have a day off, that was fine. Nobody else would have to be asked to cover for me, my work could wait until I was ready to do it. Oh yes, it was hard work taking care of our home and our children and the hours were long, but the work was varied and very rewarding. In fact, being a homemaker was the perfect job for me. I was absolutely happy being a housewife and mum. Watching my children thrive, witnessing their first steps, hearing their first words and all the other milestones were worth more than any amount of money.
is hard work with long hours.
is beneficial for the family.
made for a financially difficult period.

The boy sitting next to me on the plane was nervous because he ... before.
has not flown
had not flown
did not fly

I ... here all my life.
am living
have living
have lived

We still ... life on other planets.
hadn't discovered
won't discover
didn't discover

After they … they cleared the table.
have eaten
had eaten
eat

We ... for a walk when it ... raining.
will go, stops
are going, will stop
will go, will stop

At the same time, remember that money is also important for you need it to survive. So, if a job is all … but no pay, things can get difficult.
satisfy
satisfaction

1. Choose the right variant сalled our friends in London yesterday to te11 them about the reunion that we ....
Were planning
have рlаnned
plan
will plan

2. Fill in the gaps in the text with the correct forms of the verbs.
You said you ... to see me this Christmas.
Were coming
Will coming
Came
Come

3. Tem. sonpoca HUMAN RIGHTS DAY On 10 December 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which has become a (1) ... standard for defending and promoting human rights. Every year on 10 December, Human Rights Day marks the adoption of the Universal Declaration which states that "Human beings are born with (2) ... rights and fundamental freedoms". In 2006, Human Rights Day focused on (3) ... poverty as a matter of obligation, not of charity. Poverty is (4) ... by human rights violations. The links between human rights and poverty should be obvious: people whose rights are (5) ... are more likely to be poor. Generally they find it harder or impossible to participate in the labour market and have little or no access to (6) ... services and resources. Meanwhile, the poor in many societies cannot enjoy their rights to education, health and housing simply (7) ... they cannot afford them. And poverty affects all human rights: for example, low income can prevent people from accessing education, which in turn inhibits their participation in public life and their ability to influence the policies affecting them. Governments and those in a position of authority must (8) ... responsibility for dealing with poverty. The realisation of human rights — including the fight against poverty — is a duty, not a mere aspiration.

Read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (1).
Complete
Typical
Whole
Universal

4. I ... a very difficult day tomorrow. I need to prepare for the exam.:
have
having
will have

5. My colleagues usually ... four days a week, and tills week they ... five days.
work, work
are working, are working
are working, work
work, are working

6. Fill in the gaps in the text with the correct forms of the verbs. I'm living in a small Hotel at the moment, but I .... to a flat next week. I've asked a friend of mine to share it with me.
moved
move
have moved
am moving

7. The Irish Travellers are the largest minority in Ireland. There are about 25,000 Irish Travellers in Ireland and 1,300 in Northern Ireland. They are a little understood nomadic community, who have many difficulties to overcome if they are to survive as a culture and gain acceptance into Irish society. Among the challenges facing them are poverty and racism. The Irish Travellers are a distinct ethnic group which has existed for centuries. Often they are mistakenly considered part of the nomadic Romani, an ethnic group which originated in the region of India and is now widespread throughout Europe. But the Irish Travellers are indigenous to Ireland, so the two cultures are not related. While both are nomadic, the Irish Travellers are Roman Catholic and speak a language that is theirs alone. They have their own culture, customs, traditions, and language. They are noted for their musical and storytelling abilities. In times past, they travelled by horse-drawn wagon in caravans, making camp along the way. Tinsmithing, horse trading and peddling were the major sources of income in those days. Tinsmiths were so prevalent among Irish Travellers that the terms Tinker and Irish Traveller were used interchangeably. Today, Tinker is one of many names for Irish Travellers. Horses and wagons have given way to mobile homes pulled by motor vehicles. They continue their life on the road, but there are fewer places to stop and fewer places where they are welcome. Today, Irish Travellers mainly work in re-cycling. Changing needs of society and progress have eliminated the jobs that could support a culture on wheels. Irish Travellers are poor, undereducated, and on the receiving end of discrimination. Their life expectancy is lower than average while their infant mortality rate is higher than average. As is the case with the Romani, the Irish Travellers are seen by many as a group of immoral, ignorant criminals and con artists. People distrust their nomadic culture and their language, Shelta. Many think it's a secret language specifically developed as a tool to help the Irish Travellers trick innocent people. But this is not true. It is an old language, which has evolved with time and circumstances. Once heavily infused with Irish Gaelic, it is now infused with English. Although both groups are nomadic, their cultures ....
are not related
indigenous
are not the same

8. The Irish Travellers are the largest minority in Ireland. There are about 25,000 Irish Travellers in Ireland and 1,300 in Northern Ireland. They are a little understood nomadic community, who have many difficulties to overcome if they are to survive as a culture and gain acceptance into Irish society. Among the challenges facing them are poverty and racism. The Irish Travellers are a distinct ethnic group which has existed for centuries. Often they are mistakenly considered part of the nomadic Romani, an ethnic group which originated in the region of India and is now widespread throughout Europe. But the Irish Travellers are indigenous to Ireland, so the two cultures are not related. While both are nomadic, the Irish Travellers are Roman Catholic and speak a language that is theirs alone. They have their own culture, customs, traditions, and language. They are noted for their musical and storytelling abilities. In times past, they travelled by horse-drawn wagon in caravans, making camp along the way. Tinsmithing, horse trading and peddling were the major sources of income in those days. Tinsmiths were so prevalent among Irish Travellers that the terms Tinker and Irish Traveller were used interchangeably. Today, Tinker is one of many names for Irish Travellers. Horses and wagons have given way to mobile homes pulled by motor vehicles. They continue their life on the road, but there are fewer places to stop and fewer places where they are welcome. Today, Irish Travellers mainly work in re-cycling. Changing needs of society and progress have eliminated the jobs that could support a culture on wheels. Irish Travellers are poor, undereducated, and on the receiving end of discrimination. Their life expectancy is lower than average while their infant mortality rate is higher than average. As is the case with the Romani, the Irish Travellers are seen by many as a group of immoral, ignorant criminals and con artists. People distrust their nomadic culture and their language, Shelta. Many think it's a secret language specifically developed as a tool to help the Irish Travellers trick innocent people. But this is not true. It is an old language, which has evolved with time and circumstances. Once heavily infused with Irish Gaelic, it is now infused with English. They were called Tinkers, which is now ... for them.:
a title
terms
a name

9. Choose the right variant When Mark arrived, the Johnsons ... dinner, but stopped in order to talk to him.:
had
had been having
were having
was having

10. At 10 o'clock in the morning on Wednesday Tom ... a delegation in the office.:
will receive
is receiving
will be receiving

11. Although the sun was shining, it was still cold, because it ... hard for two hours.
had been raining
had rained
was raining

12. I feel terrible. I think I ... to be sick.
am going
will
go

13. On 10 December 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which has become a (1) standard for defending and
promoting human rights. Every year on 10 December, Human Rights Day marks the adoption of the Universal Declaration which states that "Human beings are born with (2)
rights and fundamental freedoms". In 2006, Human Rights Day focused on (3) poverty as a matter of obligation, not of charity. Poverty is (4) by human rights violations. The
links between human rights and poverty should be obvious: people whose rights are (5) are more likely to be poor. Generally they find it harder or impossible to participate in
the labour market and have little or no access to (6) services and resources. Meanwhile, the poor in many societies cannot enjoy their rights to education, health and housing
simply (7) they cannot afford them. And poverty affects all human rights: for example, low income can prevent people from accessing education, which in turn inhibits their
participation in public life and their ability to influence the policies affecting them. Governments and those in a position of authority must (8) responsibility for dealing with
poverty. The realisation of human rights - including the fight against poverty - is a duty, not a mere aspiration.

Read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (4).

led
caused
made
resulted

14. Choose the right variant
While Tom a book, Marhta TV.
read, was watching
was reading, was watching
read, watched
was reading, watched

15. The Irish Travellers are the largest minority in Ireland. There are about 25,000 Irish Travellers in Ireland and 1,300 in Northern Ireland. They are a little understood nomadic
community, who have many difficulties to overcome if they are to survive as a culture and gain acceptance into Irish society. Among the challenges facing them are poverty and
racism. The Irish Travellers are a distinct ethnic group which has existed for centuries. Often they are mistakenly considered part of the nomadic Romani, an ethnic group which
originated in the region of India and is now widespread throughout Europe. But the Irish Travellers are indigenous to Ireland, so the two cultures are not related. While both are
nomadic, the Irish Travellers are Roman Catholic and speak a language that is theirs alone. They have their own culture, customs, traditions, and language. They are noted for their
musical and storytelling abilities. In times past, they travelled by horse-drawn wagon in caravans, making camp along the way. Tinsmithing, horse trading and peddling were the
major sources of income in those days. Tinsmiths were so prevalent among Irish Travellers that the terms Tinker and Irish Traveller were used interchangeably. Today, Tinker is
one of many names for Irish Travellers. Horses and wagons have given way to mobile homes pulled by motor vehicles. They continue their life on the road, but there are fewer
places to stop and fewer places where they are welcome. Today, Irish Travellers mainly work in reflcycling. Changing needs of society and progress have eliminated thejobs that
could support a culture on wheels. Irish Travellers are poor, undereducated, and on the receiving end of discrimination. Their life expectancy is lower than average while their
infant mortality rate is higher than average. As is the case with the Romani, the Irish Travellers are seen by many as a group of immoral, ignorant criminals and con artists. People
distrust their nomadic culture and their language, Shelta. Many think it's a secret language specifically developed as a tool to help the Irish Travellers trick innocent people. But
this is not true. It is an old language, which has evolved with time and circumstances. Once heavily infused with Irish Gaelic, it is now infused with English.

In the past the Irish Travellers went around by in caravans.
camels
horse-drawn wagon
foot


16. It outsicie; I do not like to walk in such weather.
is raining
rains
is rain

17. Choose the right variant
The food that Ann is cooking in the kitchen deliflcious.
is smelling
smelt
smells
will smell

18. The Irish Travellers are the largest minority in Ireland. There are about 25,000 Irish Travellers in Ireland and 1,300 in Northern Ireland. They are a little understood nomadic
community, who have many difficulties to overcome if they are to survive as a culture and gain acceptance into Irish society. Among the challenges facing them are poverty and
racism. The Irish Travellers are a distinct ethnic group which has existed for centuries. Often they are mistakenly considered part of the nomadic Romani, an ethnic group which
originated in the region of India and is now widespread throughout Europe. But the Irish Travellers are indigenous to Ireland, so the two cultures are not related. While both are
nomadic, the Irish Travellers are Roman Catholic and speak a language that is theirs alone. They have their own culture, customs, traditions, and language. They are noted for their
musical and storytelling abilities. In times past, they travelled by horse-drawn wagon in caravans, making camp along the way. Tinsmithing, horse trading and peddling were the
major sources of income in those days. Tinsmiths were so prevalent among Irish Travellers that the terms Tinker and Irish Traveller were used interchangeably. Today, Tinker is
one of many names for Irish Travellers. Horses and wagons have given way to mobile homes pulled by motor vehicles. They continue their life on the road, but there are fewer
places to stop and fewer places where they are welcome. Today, Irish Travellers mainly work in reflcycling. Changing needs of society and progress have eliminated thejobs that
could support a culture on wheels. Irish Travellers are poor, undereducated, and on the receiving end of discrimination. Their life expectancy is lower than average while their
infant mortality rate is higher than average. As is the case with the Romani, the Irish Travellers are seen by many as a group of immoral, ignorant criminals and con artists. People
distrust their nomadic culture and their language, Shelta. Many think it's a secret language specifically developed as a tool to help the Irish Travellers trick innocent people. But
this is not true. It is an old language, which has evolved with time and circumstances. Once heavily infused with Irish Gaelic, it is now infused with English.

The Irish Travellers are mistakenly taken for the nomadic Romani, another widely spread in Europe.
distinct group
community
ethnic group

19. She at the parcel long enough, before she that it was for her brother.
had been looking, underStOOd
had been looking, had UhderStOOd
was looking, understood

20. The Irish Travellers are the largest minority in Ireland. There are about 25,000 Irish Travellers in Ireland and 1,300 in Northern Ireland. They are a little understood nomadic
community, who have many difficulties to overcome if they are to survive as a culture and gain acceptance into Irish society. Among the challenges facing them are poverty and
racism. The are a distinct ethnic group which has existed for centuries. Often they are mistakenly considered part of the nomadic Romani, an ethnic group which
originated in the region of India and is now widespread throughout Europe.

But the Irish Travellers are indigenous to Ireland, so the two cultures are not related. While both are
nomadic, the are Roman Catholic and speak a language that is theirs alone. They have their own culture, customs, traditions, and language. They are noted for their
musical and storytelling abilities. In times past, they travelled by horse-drawn wagon in caravans, making camp along the way. Tinsmithing, horse trading and peddling were the
major sources of income in those days. Tinsmiths were so prevalent among Irish Travellers that the terms Tinker and Irish Traveller were used interchangeably. Today, Tinker is
one of many names for. Horses and wagons have given way to mobile homes pulled by motor vehicles. They continue their life on the road, but there are fewer
places to stop and fewer places where they are welcome. Today, mainly work in reflcycling. Changing needs of society and progress have eliminated thejobs that
could support a culture on wheels. Irish Travellers are poor, undereducated, and on the receiving end of discrimination. Their life expectancy is lower than average while their
infant mortality rate is higher than average. As is the case with the Romani, the Irish Travellers are seen by many as a group of immoral, ignorant criminals and con artists. Peo

21. HUMAN RIGHTS DAY On 10 December 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which has become a (1) standard for
defending and promoting human rights. Every year on 10 December, Human Rights Day marks the adoption of the Universal Declaration which states that "Human beings are
born with (2) rights and fundamental freedoms". In 2006, Human Rights Day focused on (3) poverty as a matter of obligation, not of charity. Poverty is (4) by human rights
violations. The links between human rights and poverty should be obvious: people whose rights are (5) are more likely to be poor. Generally they find it harder or impossible to
participate in the labour market and have little or no access to (6) services and resources. Meanwhile, the poor in many societies cannot enjoy their rights to education, health
and housing simply (7) they cannot afford them. And poverty affects all human rights: for example, low income can prevent people from accessing education, which in turn
inhibits their participation in public life and their ability to influence the policies affecting them. Governments and those in a position of authority must (8) responsibility for
dealing with poverty. The realisation of human rights - including the fight against poverty - is a duty, not a mere aspiration.

Read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (2).
identical
similar
equal
same

22. I … to the cinema but my friend persuaded me to stay.
did not go
was going
am not going

23. Catherine is studying law at the university, and so ...Nick.
was
is
were
does

24. We were good friends, we each other for years.
had knowing
had known
were knowing

25. The Irish Travellers are the largest minority in Ireland. There are about 25,000 Irish Travellers in Ireland and 1,300 in Northern Ireland. They are a little understood nomadic
community, who have many difficulties to overcome if they are to survive as a culture and gain acceptance into Irish society. Among the challenges facing them are poverty and
racism. The Irish Travellers are a distinct ethnic group which has existed for centuries. Often they are mistakenly considered part of the nomadic Romani, an ethnic group which
originated in the region of India and is now widespread throughout Europe. But the Irish Travellers are indigenous to Ireland, so the two cultures are not related. While both are
nomadic, the are Roman Catholic and speak a language that is theirs alone. They have their own culture, customs, traditions, and language. They are noted for the
musical and storytelling abilities. In times past, they travelled by horse-drawn wagon in caravans, making camp along the way. Tinsmithing, horse trading and peddling were the
major sources of income in those days. Tinsmiths were so prevalent among Irish Travellers that the terms Tinker and Irish Traveller were used interchangeably. Today, Tinker is
one of many names for. Horses and wagons have given way to mobile homes pulled by motor vehicles. They continue their life on the road, but there are fewer
places to stop and fewer places where they are welcome. Today, Irish Travellers mainly work in reflcycling. Changing needs of society and progress have eliminated thejobs that
could support a culture on wheels. are poor, undereducated, and on the receiving end of discrimination. Their life expectancy is lower than average while their
infant mortality rate is higher than average. As is the case with the Romani, the Irish Travellers are seen by many as a group of immoral, ignorant criminals and con artists. People
distrust their nomadic culture and their language, Shelta. Many think it's a secret language specifically developed as a tool to help the trick innocent people. But
this is not true. It is an old language, which has evolved with time and circumstances. Once heavily infused with Irish Gaelic, it is now infused with English.

Read the text and complete the gap in the sentences with the words from the text.

are the two main problems of Irish Travellers.
a culture and acceptance
poverty and racism
minority and poverty
racism and a culture

26. We were extremely tired at the end of thejourney. We for more than 24 hours-
had been travelling
have travelled
were travelling

27. Fill in the gaps in the text with the correct forms of the verbs.
I've been working as a manager since I and I find It really interesting
will arrive
arrives
arrive
arrived

28. Fill in the gaps in the text with the correct forms of the verbs.
I in Novgorod for three months and I'm enjoying life here very much.
am
had been
have been
was

29. Fill in the gaps in the text with the correct forms of the verbs.

I'm learning Russian and I can already understand what people around me are talking about. "But I find it really difficult to speak Russian . I the course by the end of the year
and hope I feel more confident with this language.
finished
will have finished
finish
will finish

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